# Math

Elementary students continue to use concrete, multi-sensory Montessori materials to develop number sense and computational skills. Hands-on work, using a clear and reliable coding system enables students to explore increasingly complex math concepts. Through practice and articulation of problem and process, they construct solid math reasoning skills and become confident problem-solvers. Over the six years in Elementary, students also navigate a rich hands-on geometry curriculum, which begins with a study of nomenclature and shape and evolves into an application of mathematical skills to measure size--perimeter, area and volume.

Lower Elementary 1-3 Mathematics Program

Numeration
: Establish place values from units to millions; form, read and compare single and multi-digit whole numbers; form, read, and compare fractions
Mathematical Operations: Add, multiply, subtract and divide whole numbers

Math Facts: Research of math fact combinations; develop fluency with math facts

Geometry: Name and classify lines, angles, polygons and closed figures; establish congruence, similarity and equivalence

Application: Use operations for word problems, to calculate with money, and other real world scenarios

Measurement: Use non-standard and US Customary measurement for length, mass, and temperature

Data: Collect, represent and interpret data using tally marks, bar graphs, line graphs and pie graphs

Pre-Algebra: exploration of the commutative, associative and distributive properties, analysis of squares and cubes

Upper Elementary 4-6 Mathematics Program:

Numeration: Form, read and compare whole numbers, fractions, decimals, and relative numbers; express numbers in standard, expanded and exponential notation

Mathematical Operations:
Addition, multiplication, subtraction and division of whole numbers, fractions, decimal fractions and relative numbers; derivation of square and cube roots; application of order of operations

Geometry:
Classification and measurement of lines, angles, plane figures and solids; determination of equivalence using multi-step proofs and application of the transitive property; use of a coordinate plane to plot points and lines; explorations of the Pythagorean Theorem

Measurement:
Use metric units to measure length, area, volume and mass

Data:
Collect, represent and analyze data using bar graphs, line graphs, and pie charts. Identify mean, median, mode and range of a data set. Determine probability to describe and predict outcomes

Proportionality:
Use ratios, proportions, and percentages to express mathematical relationships; move flexibly between fractions, decimals, and percents to suit the scenario

Pre-algebra:
Use variables to represent unknown quantities; expand and build polynomial squares; use tables, rules, variables and graphs to describe patterns and numerical relationships; derive formulas to generalize from specifics

## Middle School Program

Located in the heart of Cambridge, MA, CMS is a private school serving children twenty-one months through grade 8 in four distinct programs: Toddler, Primary, Elementary and Middle School. CMS educates the whole child, applying the Montessori philosophy in a joyful learning environment.

info@cambridgemontessori.org